I wish there were better books on this topic, but for now, Sorting Things Out is one of the better books I'm aware of. It covers challenges that come from the attempts of humans to categorize things. In particular, the cultural and political implications of categorization. As the book notes, categorizations can seem invisible; often people don't realize how arbitrary categorization systems are and the significant impacts of these categorization systems could have.
I recommend the first chapter or two, but the rest is about examples that aren't particularly informative.